Hello folks, we hope that you are working hard to clear this prestigious examination. Today we are bringing you the ebooks for the most popular optional subject Geography. Scroll down to Geographical Thought R D Dikshit Pdf Free.

Though recently UPSC has released the notification regarding postponement of the examination, uncertainty still looms. We all are aware of the importance of these books. They are like the foundation of our preparation, stronger the foundation better is the rest of the structure. UPSC Free Materials is sharing the Geographical Thought R D Dikshit Pdf Free. Because we faced numerous difficulties in arranging the relevant books for our preparation.

This book lays the foundation for a good number of topics for Paper 2 Syllabus of UPSC Geography Optional. The best part of reading this Paper or this book is that it gives us bumper harvest – you can write very good answers in the Paper 2 of optional. Added to that if you mention the theories at relevant places in Paper 1, you get an advantage. All the optional are about how you implement the theoretical part in Paper 1 of that optional.


1 The First Foundations: Developments up to the Eighteenth Century
Contributions of the Greeks and the Romans
Geography in the Middle Ages
Geography in the Arab Lands
The Age of Exploration
The Impact of Discoveries
The New Geography of the 18th Century
Placing Geography in the Classification of Sciences: The Contribution of Immanuel Kant

2. Geography in the Nineteenth Century: The Age of Humboldt, 1790-1859
Science and Philosophy at the End of the Eighteenth Century
Alexander von Humboldt
Carl Ritter (1779-1859) and His Contribution to Geography as a Discipline
Legacy of Humboldt and Ritter
Some Eminent Followers

3. Geography after Humboldt and Ritter: Developments in Germany
The Intellectual Climate of the Time
The Crisis of Identity in Geography
Developments in Germany
Rise of Dualism between Physical and Human Geography
Re-establishment of Geography as an Integrated Science: The Study of Man-Land Relationships
Integration through the Concept of Chorology
Geography as a Landscape Science

4. Geography after Humboldt and Ritter: Developments Outside Germany
Developments in France
Great Britain Developments
Developments in Russia
Developments in the United States

5. Developments in Geography Since World War II: From Areal to Spatial Analysis
Sources of Dissatisfaction with Regional Geography
The Schaefer-Hartshorne Debate: From Regional Exceptionalism to Generalization and Theory
The Course of Development of Geography as a Science of Spatial Analysis
On the Nature of Positivist Explanation

6. Behavioral Persuasion in Geography and the Rise of Humanistic Geography
Behavioral Geography
Humanistic Geography
The Practice of Humanistic Geography
Contributions of Humanistic Geography to Human Geography

7. The Call for Social Relevance in Research: Reorientation to Political Economy
The Rise of the Relevance Movement
The Political Economy Perspective in Human Geography
Geography and Social Justice
Modem Geography and Western Marxism: The Subordination of Space in Social Theory, 1880-1920
Geography and Sociology

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8. The Regional Concept and Regional Geography
The Region
Regional Geography
The Grigg-Bunge Debate (1966): “The One and the Only Revolution in Geography”

9. The Historical Explanation in Geography
The Role of Time and Genesis in Geography
Major Areas of Temporal Explanation in Geography
Three Realms of Historical Geography: Real, Imagined, and Abstract Worlds of the Past
The Need for Distinguishing between the Role of the Past in Nature and Culture: Collingwood’ s Theory of Historical Knowing
Geosophy and Historical Geography
“Ideology”, Marxist History and Historical Geography 220

10. Impact of Evolutionary Biology on Geographical Thought Organization and Ecosystem as Geographical Models
The Darwinian Theory of Evolution
Ecology and Ecosystem as a Geographical Principle and Method

11. Geography and Environmentalism
Man-Nature Relationship
Nature-as-Nurture: The Current View of Man-Environment Relations

12. Place, Space, and Locality: The Current Focus in Human Geography
Locale, Location and Sense of Place
Focus on Localities: The Rise of New Regional Geography
The Locality Research and the Social Science Theory

13. The Geography of Gender
Feminist Geography
Feminism and Phenomenological and Humanistic
Approaches in Geography

14. Modern versus Post-Modern Geographies
The Meaning of the Two Terms
The Changeover to Post-Modem Geography

15. Progress Since World War II: Continuity, Change, Rapprochement, and Convergence

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